THE CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE EXCHANGE,
cea de-a 5-a conferință din seria de evenimente SEA (Share. Empower. Awareness.)
Locația evenimentului: ACADEMIA ROMÂNĂ – FILIALA IAȘI
FUNDAȚIA ROMÂNĂ PETRU INTELIGENȚA AFACERII și
ACADEMIA ROMÂNĂ, Filiala Iași – Comisia pentru studierea problemelor de marketing
Perioada desfășurării: 4-5 aprilie 2014
În urma selectării și recenzării, unele articole au fost publicate în ”SEA-Practical Application of Science”, în ”Cross-Cultural Management Journal”, în ”Network Intelligence Studies” și în ”Management Intercultural” .
Professor Dumitru Zaiț, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Romania
Professor Maria Bedrule-Grigoruţă, Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, România
Professor Ioan Petrișor, West University of Timișoara, Romania
Professor Stanka Tonkova, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria
Professor Blandine Vanderlinden, ICHEC Brussels Management School, Belgium
Editor: Corina Anamaria Ioan
Language Advisor: Diana Prisecaru
Editor: Dragoș Florentin Mariciuc
Editor: Alexandra Lotzing Stanciu
Preşedinte al Comisiei pentru studierea problemelor de marketing: Florin Alexandru Luca
Abordarea în cadrul Conferinței a fost multidisciplinară, fiind acceptați ca participanți, cercetători și pasionați din domenii precum: Economie, Management, Marketing, Antropologie, Ştiinţe ale Comunicării, Sociologie, Psihologie, Științe Politice, Lingvistică, Educație, Geografie umană, Istorie și Drept.
Programul evenimentului a fost structurat astfel:
Astfel, lucrările Conferinţei au fost deschise de domnul profesor universitar doctor Dumitru Zaiţ, cadru universitar în cadrul Universităţii Al. I. Cuza din Iaşi şi preşedinte al Cross-Cultural Management Journal. Domnia sa a vorbit despre Contextul cultural al inovării şi în acest sens a conchis că dimensiunea culturală nu este ceea ce ne furnizează ca definiţie dicţionarul, ea putând fi desemnată ca o extensie a umanului, context în care comportamentul şi atitudinea conferă inteligenţă activităţii. Domnul Zaiț a enumerat în continuare o serie de trei elemente specifice relaţiei cultură – inovare: cel mai important dintre aceste elemente este limba în care se comunică; pe locul secund se găseşte filozofia creării şi creativităţii; în cele din urmă, dar nu mai puţin important, se află modul de abordare a soluţiilor. În prelegerea sa, domnul președinte a concluzionat că fiecare dintre noi trebuie sa fie suficient de deschis în a observa diferenţele dintre soluţiile proprii şi alte soluţii exterioare.
Din partea Universităţii Tehnice din Iaşi ne-a onorat cu prezenţa domnul prorector, profesor universitar doctor inginer Neculai Eugen Seghedin. Domnia sa a vorbit despre Interculturalitatea în dezvoltarea învăţământului tehnic superior şi în acest sens a trecut în revistă etapele formării Şcolii de inventică în cadrul Universităţii Tehnice din Iaşi, subliniind rolul deosebit pe care inginerul îl are în contextul creativităţii. Astfel, inginerul este cel care naşte tehnică, aplică tehnica, dar la fel de bine, trebuie să fie capabil sa conducă grupuri de tehnicieni şi mai ales creează o nouă tehnică. Domnul profesor a dat câteva exemple de ingineri-manageri sau manageri-ingineri (Thomas Edison, respectiv Bill Gates) evidenţiind faptul că este foarte greu de stabilit până unde fiecare este inginer şi de unde încep să fie manageri. Dincolo de acest aspect, a fost savurat momentul în care prorectorul a făcut referire la folclorul existent în ceea ce priveşte relaţia ingineri – economişti.
Din partea Universităţii Pierre Mendes Grenoble, France, a luat cuvântul domnul profesor Alain Spalanzani, care a ţinut o prelegere despre Innovation, Hazard et developpement economique: le case grenoblois. În cadrul acestei prelegeri, domnul profesor a făcut o scurtă trecere în revistă a istoriei sitului Grenoble, subliniind importanţa desfăşurării unor serii de activităţi practice, precum şi contextul natural al dezvoltării centrului de cercetare de la Grenoble. A prezentat de asemenea o etapizare a istoriei Centrului Universitar al cărui preşedinte onorific este, evidenţiind următorul aspect: dacă într-o fază incipientă, inginerii şi muncitorii au fost cei dinspre care veneau ideile de cercetare, sensul este invers în contemporaneitate, în sensul că cercetarea furnizează idei de practică către ingineri.
Ulterior, cel care a captat atenţia auditorului a fost domnul profesor universitar doctor Constantin Sasu care a delectat publicul cu o prezentare animată despre Influenţa elementelor culturii asupra activităţii de marketing internaţional. În acest sens, domnia sa a definit cultura ca fiind totalitatea valorilor materiale şi spirituale dobândite de un popor de-a lungul timpului şi transmise din generaţie în generaţie. A captat atenţia publicului si atunci când a prezentat o serie de proverbe sau maxime din fiecare cultură, cum ar fi: „Ordinea este jumătate din viaţă” – proverb german ce accentuează valoarea organizării şi a conformităţii; “Promisiunea dată e datorie curată” – proverb francez care reliefează importanţa respectării cuvântului dat; „Tunetele puternice aduc puţină ploaie” – proverb chinez care subliniază importanţa de a fi modest, rezervat. Ulterior, a prezentat o serie de exemple de manifestări ale marketingului unde rolul culturii este esenţial în transmiterea corectă a mesajului.
Sesiunea de deschidere a Conferinţei a fost încheiată de domnul conferenţiar universitar doctor Florin Alexandru Luca, în calitate de preşedinte al Comisiei pentru studierea problemelor de marketing, din cadrul Academiei Române, filiala Iaşi. Domnia sa a trecut în revistă istoria marktingului ca materie prinsă în planurile de învăţământ, iar discursul său a subliniat rolul şi importanţa Marketingului şi Interculturalităţii. Discursul dumnealui s-a clădit pe frumuseţea umană, din ce în ce mai puţin vizibilă în zilele noastre, fapt ilustrat de un spot publicitar vizualizat în conferinţă. Ideea spotului era aceea că un specialist FBI în desenarea portretelor robot schitează portrete pentru aceeași persoană din două perspective: prima este cea a autodescrierii, iar secunda este o descriere făcută de altă persoană. Concluzia unanim valabilă este aceea că în autodescriere persoanele se vad mai puțin frumoase decât le vad cei din jur.
În plen au fost invitați să prezinte articolele următorii autori:
A STUDY ON MULTICULTURAL PERSONALITY
”For the twenty-first century organization, the multiculturalism presence is a success factor that provides a favorable environment for the cultural diversity development and management (Aoun, 2004)”
Para Iulia, coautor alături de prim autorul Moise Judith
INTERCULTURAL ASPECTS AND TOLERANCE IN THE BANAT COUNTY
”The Banat County may offer a model of cohabitation, so as to avoid any conflict or misunderstandings, by perceiving “the other” as being different. Being different, and being accepted as such leads to the progress of creativity and, in this respect, the population of Banat, whatever its nationality, or religious confession, offers a model of cooperation to be followed.”
PRODUCTIVITY IN SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE MULTICULTURAL TEAMS
”Multicultural side has impact also on many of the “traditional” factors. Besides having a major impact on communication inside and outside of the team, it has a potential impact on other factors impacting productivity.According with our simple way of calculating the productivity, in order to have a positive impact, a team needs to either increase the number of requests in a given period of time(reduce time required by one request) or increase the “available” time, meaning eliminate non value added activities.”
Patricea Elena Bertea, autor alături de domana prof. Adriana Zaiț pentru articolul
RESPONSE STYLES IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH – EVIDENCE FROM HISTORICAL REGIONS
”Our study focuses on extreme response styles (ERS), which have, as potential consequences, spurious findings, an inflation (or deflation) of the observed means variance , a decrease in the magnitude of multivariate relationships (Baumgartner and Steenkamp, 2001; Moors, 2008; Van Vaerenbergh and Thomas, 2012). According to the synthesis realized by Baumgartner and Steenkamp (2001), the theoretical explanations for extreme response styles include a certain rigidity, intolerance, ambiguity and dogmatism, higher levels of anxiety and even possible deviant behaviours, poorly differentiated or developed cognitive structures, stimuli that are important or involving to respondents.
Our study aims to identify differences in response styles between regions which belong to Romania, but have previously been under foreign occupation. To do that, we employ data from the European Social Survey, the round of 2006. The historical regions investigated have different economic development levels and also cultural differences, which allow us to hypothesize that ERS could appear. ”
MATRIX FOR COOPERATION IN THE CROSS-BORDER AREAS
”The other question was to make a hierarchy of the factors that block the development of the cross border cooperation in Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova area, namely existence of different legal systems (1), membership to different supranational structures (EU Member State/EU Partner Country) (2), economic gaps (3), historical events (4), language differences (5) and territorial disputes (6). The number of intervals was six and the size of the interval was five.”
Colibaba Cristina Anca
GAINING CULTURAL COMPETENCE THROUGH THE GLOTTODRAMA PROJECT
”With mobility becoming a key feature in today’s world, learning foreign languages has never been so important. Students’ level of communicative competence (where intercultural knowledge and behaviour are included) should ensure their survival and confidence irrespective of the culture and educational context they find themselves in. In this respect, their perception and understanding of the new cultures, as well as of their own, plays a vital role.”
Ulterior, s-a trecut la prezentarea lucrărilor pe secţiuni, fotograful nostru surprinzând câteva prezentări:
Mihail Busu – SCREENING METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF CARTELS
”As a general conclusion, we assume that screening methods should be combined with specific data of the applicable law and of the current economic context for not creating distorted images on economic reality. Used with discretion by the trained personnel in competition field, screening techniques are able to furnish to the users the necessary clues for market analysis, both the structural and behavioural ones.”
Valentina Daniela Constantin – THE IMPACT OF ORIGIN ON CREATING A CULT BRAND: THE CASE OF APPLE
”Modern society gathers a large spectrum of elements that create a perfect environment for developing cult brands. The most significant is perhaps fragmentation, determining the increasing cases of violence, a higher divorce rate and other problems among people. Cult branding exploits the remaining human need of security, belonging and interaction with other people. On this background there is a higher competition among brands to gain consumers’ loyalty and commitment. Apple is an example of maintaining an emotional bond with its customers, often functioning as a refuge for their daily problems.”
Dan Constantinescu – BIBLICAL REFERENCES TO MONETARY AND CREDIT RELATIONS
”The existence of money and credit can be associated with the existence of economic relations, since their beginning, as well as the natural tendency of development, seen in abroader sense, which include both the desire for accumulation and the effects of temporary redistribution function of cash on handor material goods.
Accepting the character of historical document of biblical texts, you will see that they offer adiverse documentary material, easy to structure on the patterns of modern disciplines related to monetary and credit relations, which is why we consider that it confirms the hypothesis stated in the introduction, regarding the biblicalorig in of the subjects.”
Silviu George Cordoş – AUDIT REPORTING AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: LINKS AND IMPLICATIONS
”Hence, we conclude that an effective corporate governance can be achieved by transposing the transparency principle, which implies disclosure of accounting information of the company. Keeping the same focus, we have outlined the importance of audit in corporate governance. In our approach, we have started from the study of literature that highlights audit importance in the context of corporate governance.”
Andrei Răzvan Crişan – GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL REPORTS – BETWEEN VARIETY AND INTEGRATION
”The recommendation is to try to implement a system that generates both GFS Statements and IPSAS Statements or a combination between them. Creating this system could reduce the costs and make the providing of information easier. Also, the paper contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between GFS and IPSAS.”
Alexandrina Cruceanu – STAREA DE SĂNĂTATE – UN PREDICTOR AL CALITĂŢII VIEŢII PERSONALE
”The healthy people’s life style is,indeed significantly different from the unhealthy people’s one.Our study confirms,once again that,generally,the individual’s health state is not a “divine gift”,but rather our conscious choice to adopt all those favourablebehaviours,ornot,for a healthy,balanced,even moderate life style,which influences the health state’s evolution. The residential area (urban/rural) “imposes” certain behavioural patterns regarding the health state perception,choosing medical services,hospital locations that they choose for treatment or other medical services.”
Magdalena Daniela Dinu (Popa) – SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS
”Creating value for customers and gaining competitive advantages are the objectives of all companies. In order to achieve them the companies pay attention, increasingly more, to Managing of Supply Chain. Effectively Managing the Supply Chain requires commitment from all parties involved.
Since Supply Chain Management consists of managing the flow of information, products and services across a network of supply chain partners, manufacturing plants, and customers, the most challenging key factor would be an accurate communication.”
Andra GAJEVSZKY – THE IMPACT OF AUDITOR`S OPINION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA
”The most significant findings of this research are that the probability to manage earnings to the decrease is related to the issuance of a qualified audit report and the presence of a Big 4 auditor. Consistent with the findings of Gerayli et al. (2011) and Chen et al. (2005), the results of this study indicate that auditor size is negatively associated with the earnings management measured by discretionary accruals, thus indicating that companies audited by Big 4 audit firms will engage in less earnings management than firms audited by non-Big 4. In other words, Big 4 auditors are associated with reduced management discretion over earnings.”
Ana-Maria GEAMĂNU – TAX HAVENS IN THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CENTERS INDEX
”The favorable fiscalsystems presented by the six former tax havens: Monaco, Jersey, Guernsey, Cayman Islands, Isle of Man and British Virgin Islands remain an important factor of their success in creating well established financial sectors. At the same time their adherence to the OECD`s international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes contributed to the creation of a good reputation at the international level. Therefore, the latest Global Financial Centers Index of the Z/Yen Group nominates the six states among the leading 50 jurisdictions that succeeded in developing strong financial industries, their main competitive advantage remaining taxation.”
Maria Hermel Stănescu – MANAGEMENT COACHING VERSUS MANAGEMENT CONSULTING: WHICH COMES FIRST?
”Consulting, training & coaching are all about transferring knowledge to the client. In time the method to do this may vary. We may imagine that Thales and Pythagoras were consultants, constructing and formulating theories and schools of thought, Socrates and Platon were coaches, dialoguing with the client, helping himself to reveal the truth from the inner self, while Aristotle was merely a trainer, teaching various theories at Academia.
There is no such project in which we perform just a consultant, or just a trainer, or just a coach role. Or just a single role. Our main role is to add value to the organization using knowledge; whether we call it consulting, training or coaching is actually less relevant to the client.”
Elena Sabina Hodor – TOTAL REWARDS MODEL IN ROMANIAN COMPANIES
”The conclusions for the methodological aspects illustrate that the present research involves three strategic steps in order to achieve the objectives presented: the analysis of organizational environment of the companies from the sample,checking if the Total Rewards Model proposed in the previous research is applicable for the same romanian companies from the previous survey, the analysis of the differences between results, and, if necessary, the adaptation of the model for Romania.”
Maria-Cristina IORGULESCU – EXPATRIATE HOTEL MANAGERS’ PERSPECTIVE ON CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS
”Expatriate managers also feel that an effective communication is dependent on the ability to learn and use foreign languages such as French and English, while also having a minimum understanding of the host country’s language.
Responses also revealed the fact that surpassing cultural distance does not mean changing the culture of the host country, but rather embracing it. Being present in the social life of employees, having a warm relationship with the staff, and understanding and respecting the traditions of the host organization ultimately motivates employees to also make efforts towards accepting their expatriate manager and helping him or her adjust to the new culture.”
Aivaz Kamer Ainur – A STUDY REGARDING THE MAJOR GEOGRAPHICAL DISPARITIES IN THE ROMANIAN NUMBER OF SCHOOLS
”The challenges facing the European Union and, implicitly, Romania are now inumerous, interdependent and complex. The social consequences of the global financial and economic crisis are felt in all Member States. In this context, the education and training systems must change their priorities so as to ensure that all European citizens have the knowledge, skills and competencies to meet the challenges and demands of jobs and modern life. In 2010, the Member States and the European Commission agreed to include education and training as the key elements of the EU 2020 Strategy for a smart and sustainable economic growth, favorable to the inclusion in the current decade.”
Paul Ivan – STRUCTURAL FUNDS FOR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MIGRATION – A GENERAL OVERVIEW
”Unfortunately the inconsistencies in the administrative system have braked the projects activities and slowed the achieving of important goals which made unfulfilling the purpose of that financial allocations. Although recent history have showed that POSDRU axes were well planned and rigorously structured, the future axes will require the increasing the adaptability of the administrative system to the problems and needs that arise in projects of this area.”
Eliza- Olivia LUNGU – WHAT DETERMINES YOU TO BE AN ENTREPRENEUR?
”During 2010, Romania registered the highest rate of nascent entrepreneurs (% of the 18 – 64 population who is actively involved in setting up a new business), around 3.3%, while Denmark was at the bottom of all the five countries considered, with 1.8%. In case of the rate of informal investors (% of the 18-64 population who has provided money for a business of another person), Denmark maintains its position, while the first place is occupied this time by Greece with 5.4%.
If we look at the entrepreneurial intention rate (persons that are considering starting up a business within three years), Greece again occupies the first place with 12.8%, while Spain and Denmark are at the bottom with 5.8%, respectively 5.9%.”
Monica Mihaela MAER MATEI – VOLUNTARY WORK: TRENDS, PROFILE AND VALUES
”The present article aimed to provide a better understanding of patterns of voluntary work in Romania as compared with other European countries. While Romania registered low and decreasing rates of voluntary work in 1993-2008, one could notice a significant change in the profile of Romanian voluntary workers. In the first decade of the analysed period, full time employed and males are very present among voluntary workers, especially for trade unions. In the context of important changes at the level of Romanian economic and social environments in the 2000s, patterns of voluntary work changed in a significant manner. Full time employees were no longer those performing voluntary work in the highest extent, while students became the category with highest propensity to unpaid work.”
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI – MEDIA RELATIONS IN SPORT
”Media relationships are one of the most important factors in designing marketing communications. While the primary goal is the provision of accurate information for all media sources, the trend in the sport environment is for the media relations director to take a lead role in shaping the corporate image and brand.
Productive media relationships require sophisticated skills and the highest of ethical standards. This mandates a high level of service, well organized press conferences, professional quality written material, and the development of personal relationships across all media outlets. Internet, radio and television programming are evolving in new directions, and top sport marketers will need to be current with technology and trends.”
Marius Ioan MIHUȚ – GRUPISMUL – PIATRA DE TEMELIE A MANAGEMENTULUI NIPON
A.R. MUNTEANU – AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA
”Farmers that organise themselves in cooperatives have several advantages. First of all, they have a better negotiating power with buyers due to increased volumes. Moreover, large buyers are interested in a constant and considerable supply, much more than a single farmer’s production. The tradition of cooperatives in Nepal acts as a favourable background which facilitated formation of groups and communication and problem solving in the groups. Organising the farmers in cooperatives was proven to increase the chances of success mainly due to increased traded volumes, storage and processing facilities and more negotiating power with the buyer resulting in better prices.”
Alina Petra MARINESCU-NENCIU – MEDIA AND THE AUDIENCE-DRIVEN DISSEMINATION OF NOTHINGNESS
”At the same time, mass media theoreticians should take into consideration the revising of the hierarchy of the system’s functions as the linkage one seems to have become at least of same importance as the informative one while the interest for keeping the immediate environment under control is not an issue anymore (this probably being already checked?) in comparison to “having to be an informed person” notwithstanding real interest or even real discontent.”
Tudor OPRIȘOR – THE INTEGRATED REPORTING FRAMEWORK: BETWEEN CHALLENGE AND INNOVATION
”This research is of significant importance because it can improve feedback provision effectiveness (if the proof of the findings is valid). The mediation would be an advantage to the proper understanding of several issues proposed in the questions (which are not well comprehended by some users), as well as to the supply of a unitary submission (with accurate conciliation on opinion differences, conducted by several organizations and not by only one entity – the IIRC). A proper strategy in this direction would significantly reduce costs in the standard-setting process.”
Maria Ramona SÂRBU – FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
Roxana Mihaela SÎRBU – DEBATE ON ROMANIA INTEGRATION IN EUROPEAN UNION
”Structural and Cohesion Funds are designed for integrated sustainable development of the EU countries, and for creating a competitive economy, a green economy. The low percentage of structural funds attracted by Romania to date has prevented the integrated sustainable development of the country and the reduction of gaps between Romania and the other EU countries. The low rate of absorption of structural funds can be explained by excessive centralization, bureaucracy, corruption, blocking some sectoral programs, lack of transparency in the awarding of tenders, lack of human resources experience in implementing European projects, financing some underperforming projects.”
Adi Eleonor TRIFU – THE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF THE PETROLEUM COMPANIES IN ROMANIA
”The Financial Crisis had a great impact on the activities of petroleum companies, because of the financial activities were unprepared, as the companies were used to the high prices and the high demand from the period of the Energy Crisis of the 2000s. The study revealed that the most of the oil companies that have economic activities in Romania were in great danger of bankruptcy in the 2010, but their financial situation improved after the companies started to adapt to the new economic environment.”
Adriana Radan UNGUREANU – KNOWLEDGE GENERATING FEATURES OF INTELLIGENT TEXTILES INDUSTRY
”The prospering societies are more creative in comparison with the poorer economical conditions ones. Today we see cross border interaction among all the sciences, a certain advance in one discipline bringing advances in other fields of knowledge.
In textile industry there are more and more links to research in other industries, especially to the most advanced technologies. The new industry created in this manner is called intelligent textiles industry that uses the results of a wide range of scientific research fields which are multidisciplinary and cover the so called „Key Enabling Technologies” (KET’s).”
Iulian WARTER și Liviu WARTER – CROSS-CULTURAL INCENTIVES FOR THE FDI
”Much of the risk associated with working in Central Europe stems from uncertainty and lack of experience. This gives neighbouring countries with close historical and cultural ties to the region, such as Austria, a distinct advantage over more distant investors.
The findings show that proximity to the investor country will reduce transport costs, and may give the advantage of cultural proximity and special knowledge of the host country.”
Oana ZIGMAN – ROMANIAN SOCIAL CARE WORKERS’ EXPOSURE TO WORKPLACE VIOLENCE
”Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyzes social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence.”
Mediatorii secțiunii plenare și a celor de diseminare a rezultatelor științifice au fost:
Corina Anamaria Ioan – Editor Cross-Cultural Management Journal, Mediatorul întregului eveniment
Professor Maria Bedrule-Grigoruţă – Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași
Associate Professor Irina Teodora Manolescu – Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași
Associate Professor Florin Alexandru Luca – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iaşi
Dragoș Florentin Mariciuc – Editor Cross-Cultural Management Journal
Fotograf eveniment: Cătălina VASILACHE